SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation — The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial reporting and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows have been included and are of a normal and recurring nature. The operating results presented for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the entire year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 13, 2018. Capitalized terms used herein, and not otherwise defined, are defined in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Traditional Golf — Revenue from green fees, cart rentals, merchandise sales and other operating activities (consisting primarily of range income, banquets and club amenities) is generally recognized at the time of sale, when services are rendered and collection is reasonably assured.
Revenue from membership dues for private club members and The Players Club members is recognized in the month earned. Membership dues received in advance are included in deferred revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the appropriate period, which is generally twelve months or less for private club members and the following month for The Players Club members. The membership dues are generally structured to cover the club operating costs and membership services.
Private country club members generally pay an advance initiation fee deposit upon their acceptance as a member to the respective country club. Initiation fee deposits are refundable 30 years after the date of acceptance as a member. The difference between the initiation fee deposit paid by the member and the present value of the refund obligation is deferred and recognized into revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Operations on a straight-line basis over the expected life of an active membership, which is estimated to be seven years. The determination of the estimated average expected life of an active membership is a significant judgment based on company-specific historical membership addition and attrition data. The present value of the refund obligation is recorded as a membership deposit liability in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and accretes over a 30-year nonrefundable term using the effective interest method. This accretion is recorded as interest expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Revenue from the reimbursement of certain operating costs incurred at the Company’s managed Traditional Golf properties is recognized at the time the associated operating costs are incurred as collection is reasonably assured per the terms of the management contracts and the repayment histories of the property owners.
Entertainment Golf — Revenue from bay play, events, and other operating activities (consisting primarily of instruction and merchandise sales) is generally recognized at the time of sale, when services are rendered and collection is reasonably assured.
Revenue from general memberships is recognized at the time of sale. Dues from other membership programs are included in deferred revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the appropriate period, which is generally twelve months or less.
Sales of Food and Beverages — Revenue from food and beverage sales are recorded at the time of sale, net of discounts.
Operating Expenses — Operating expenses consist primarily of payroll (Traditional Golf property level and Entertainment Golf venue level), utilities, repairs and maintenance, supplies, marketing and operating lease rent expense.
Operating expenses for Traditional Golf also include equipment and cart leases, seed, soil and fertilizer, and certain operating costs incurred at managed Traditional Golf properties. Many of the Traditional Golf properties and related facilities are leased under long-term operating leases. In addition to minimum payments, certain leases require payment of the excess of various percentages of gross revenue or net operating income over the minimum rental payments. The leases generally require the payment of taxes assessed against the leased property and the cost of insurance and maintenance. The majority of lease terms initially range from 10 to 20 years, and typically, the leases contain renewal options. Certain leases include scheduled increases or decreases in minimum rental payments at various times during the term of the lease. These scheduled rent increases or decreases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Increases result in an accrual, which is included in other current liabilities and other liabilities, and decreases result in a receivable, which is included in other current assets and other assets, for the amount by which the cumulative straight-line rent differs from the contractual cash rent.
Operating expenses for Entertainment Golf also include information technology-related support and maintenance.
|General and Administrative Expense
General and Administrative Expense — General and administrative expense consists of costs associated with corporate and administrative functions that support development and operations.
Pre-Opening Costs — Pre-opening costs are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of marketing expenses, rent, employee payroll, travel and related expenses, training costs, food, beverage and other restaurant operating expenses incurred prior to opening an Entertainment Golf venue.
|Derivatives and Hedging Activities
Derivatives and Hedging Activities — All derivatives are recognized as either assets or liabilities on the balance sheet and measured at fair value. The Company reports the fair value of derivative instruments gross of cash paid or received pursuant to credit support agreements and fair value is reflected on a net counterparty basis when the Company believes a legal right of offset exists under an enforceable netting agreement. Changes in fair value are recorded in net income. Derivative transactions are entered into by the Company solely for risk management purposes in the ordinary course of business.
|Property and Equipment, Net
Property and Equipment, Net — Real estate and related improvements are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Costs that both materially add value to an asset and extend the useful life of an asset by more than a year are capitalized. The Company capitalizes to construction in progress certain costs related to properties under construction. Capitalization begins when the activities related to development have begun and ceases when activities are substantially complete and the asset is available for use. Capitalized costs include development, construction-related costs and interest expense.
Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method based on the following estimated useful lives:
Long-lived assets to be disposed of by sale, which meet certain criteria, are reclassified to real estate held-for-sale and measured at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value less costs of sale. The Company suspends depreciation and amortization for assets held-for-sale. Subsequent changes to the estimated fair value less costs to sell will impact the measurement of assets held-for-sale. Decreases are recognized as an impairment loss and recorded in "Impairment" on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. To the extent the fair value increases, any previously reported impairment is reversed. Real estate held-for-sale is recorded in “Real estate assets, held-for-sale, net” and “Real estate liabilities, held-for-sale” on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
With respect to Traditional Golf course improvements (included in buildings and improvements), costs associated with construction, significant replacements, permanent landscaping, sand traps, fairways, tee boxes or greens are capitalized. All other asset-related costs that do not meet these criteria, such as minor repairs and routine maintenance, are expensed as incurred.
The Company leases certain golf carts and other equipment that are classified as capital leases. The value of capital leases is recorded as an asset on the balance sheet, along with a liability related to the present value of associated payments. Depreciation of capital lease assets is calculated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the expected lease terms. The cost of equipment under capital leases is recorded in "Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation" on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Payments under the leases are treated as reductions of the obligations under capital leases, with a portion being recorded as interest expense under the effective interest method.
Entertainment Golf includes land, buildings, furniture, fixtures and equipment and leasehold improvements including building and land improvements.
Intangibles, Net — Intangible assets and liabilities consist primarily of leasehold advantages (disadvantages), management contracts, membership base and internally-developed software. A leasehold advantage (disadvantage) exists to the Company when it pays a contracted rent that is below (above) market rents at the date of an acquisition transaction. The value of a leasehold advantage (disadvantage) is calculated based on the differential between market and contracted rent, which is tax effected and discounted to present value based on an after-tax discount rate corresponding to each property and is amortized over the term of the underlying lease agreement. The management contract intangible represents the Company’s golf course management contracts for both leased and managed properties. The management contract intangible for leased and managed properties is valued using the discounted cash flow method under the income approach and is amortized over the term of the underlying lease or management agreements, respectively. The membership base intangible represents the Company’s relationship with its private country club members. The membership base intangible is valued using the multi-period excess earnings method under the income approach, and is amortized over the expected life of an active membership. The internally-developed software intangible represents proprietary software developed for the Company’s exclusive use. For Traditional Golf, the internally-developed software intangible is valued using the discounted cash flow method under the income approach at the date of an acquisition transaction. For Entertainment Golf, the internally-developed software intangible is composed of costs incurred to develop the software. The internally-developed software intangible is amortized over the expected useful life of the software.
Amortization of leasehold intangible assets and liabilities is included within operating expenses and amortization of all other intangible assets is included within depreciation and amortization in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Amortization of all intangible assets is calculated using the straight-line method based on the following estimated useful lives:
|Membership Deposit Liabilities
Membership Deposit Liabilities — Private country club members in our Traditional Golf business generally pay an advance initiation fee deposit upon their acceptance as a member to the respective country club. Initiation fee deposits are refundable 30 years after the date of acceptance as a member. The difference between the initiation fee deposit paid by the member and the present value of the refund obligation is deferred and recognized into Golf operations revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Operations on a straight-line basis over the expected life of an active membership, which is estimated to be seven years. The present value of the refund obligation is recorded as a membership deposit liability in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and accretes over a 30-year nonrefundable term using the effective interest method. This accretion is recorded as interest expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Other Investment — The Company owns an approximately 22% economic interest in a limited liability company which owns preferred equity secured by a commercial real estate project. The Company accounts for this investment as an equity method investment. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the carrying value of this investment was $22.3 million and $21.1 million, respectively. The Company evaluates its equity method investment for other-than-temporary impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the investment might not be recoverable. The evaluation of recoverability is based on management’s assessment of the financial condition and near-term prospects of the commercial real estate project, the length of time and the extent to which the market value of the investment has been less than cost, availability and cost of financing, demand for space, competition for tenants, changes in market rental rates, and operating costs. As these factors are difficult to predict and are subject to future events that may alter management’s assumptions, the values estimated by management in its recoverability analyses may not be realized, and actual losses or impairment may be realized in the future.
|Impairment of Real Estate and Finite-lived Intangible Assets
Impairment of Real Estate and Finite-lived Intangible Assets — The Company periodically reviews the carrying amounts of its long-lived assets, including real estate held-for-use and held-for-sale, as well as finite-lived intangible assets, to determine whether current events or circumstances indicate that such carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The assessment of recoverability is based on management’s estimates by comparing the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows generated by the underlying asset, or other appropriate grouping of assets, to its carrying value to determine whether an impairment existed at its lowest level of identifiable cash flows. If the carrying amount of the asset is greater than the expected undiscounted cash flows to be generated by such asset, an impairment is recognized to the extent the carrying value of such asset exceeds its fair value. The Company generally measures fair value by considering sale prices for similar assets or by discounting estimated future cash flows using an appropriate discount rate. Assets to be disposed of are recorded at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The standard’s core principle is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. See Note 3 for additional information.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01 Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The standard addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of financial instruments. The Company adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2018 and it did not have a material impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 Leases (Topic 842). The standard requires lessees to recognize most leases on the balance sheet and addresses certain aspects of lessor accounting. The effective date of the standard will be for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. Entities are required to use a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements, with an option to use certain relief. The Company currently has operating leases, including ground leases, for certain of its properties and leased equipment which are not recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-10 Codification Improvements to Topic 842 Leases, which provides 16 narrow scope amendments to ASC 842 including the rate implicit in the lease, impairment of the net investment in the lease, lessee reassessment of lease classification among other things. In July 2018 the FASB issued ASU 2018-11 Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements which allows entities to not apply the new lease standard in the comparative periods presented in the financial statements in the year of adoption. The Company anticipates a significant increase to its non-current assets and non-current liabilities in order to record a right-of-use asset and a related lease liability, specifically as it relates to existing operating leases. There are also certain considerations related to internal control over financial reporting that are associated with implementing the new guidance under Topic 842. The Company is currently evaluating its control framework for lease accounting and identifying any changes that may need to be made in response to the new guidance. The Company has selected an information system application to centralize the tracking of and accounting for the Company’s leases and is currently in the process of implementing that application. The Company will adopt the requirements of the new standard on January 1, 2019. The Company is working to quantify the impact, but is currently unable to estimate the impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The standard changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. For available-for-sale debt securities, entities will be required to record allowances rather than reduce the carrying amount under the other-than-temporary impairment model. The effective date of the standard will be for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019 and early adoption is permitted for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Entities will apply the standard's provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The Company is currently evaluating the new guidance to determine the impact it may have on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15 Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The standard provides specific guidance over eight identified cash flow issues in order to reduce diversity in practice over the presentation and classification of certain types of cash receipts and cash payments. The Company adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2018 and it did not have a material impact on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18 Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Restricted Cash. The standard requires entities to show the changes in the total of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in the statement of cash flows and provide a reconciliation to the related line items in the balance sheet. The Company adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2018 and has included changes in restricted cash in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for all periods presented.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805), Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The standard clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets of businesses. The Company adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2018 and it did not have a material impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15 Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. The standard requires a customer in a cloud computing arrangement (i.e., a hosting arrangement) that is a service contract to follow the internal-use software guidance in ASC 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize as assets or expense as incurred. That guidance requires certain costs incurred during the application development stage to be capitalized and other costs incurred during the preliminary project and post-implementation stages to be expensed as they are incurred. Capitalized implementation costs related to a hosting arrangement that is a service contract will be amortized over the term of the hosting arrangement, beginning when the module or component of the hosting arrangement is ready for its intended use. The effective date of the standard will be for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. Entities can either apply the guidance prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption or retrospectively. The Company is currently evaluating the new guidance to determine the impact it may have on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
|Fair Value Measurements
Liabilities for Which Fair Value is Only Disclosed
The following table summarizes the level of the fair value hierarchy, valuation techniques and inputs used for estimating each class of liabilities not measured at fair value in the statement of financial position but for which fair value is disclosed:
Fair Value Measurements
The fair value of financial instruments is categorized based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique and categorized into a three-level fair value hierarchy. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The Company follows this hierarchy for its financial instruments measured at fair value.
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical instruments.
Level 2 - Valuations based principally on observable market parameters, including
Level 3 - Valuations determined using unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity, and that are significant to the overall fair value measurement.
The Company’s real estate securities and loans, and debt obligations are currently not traded in active markets and therefore have little or no price transparency. As a result, the Company has estimated the fair value of these illiquid instruments based on internal pricing models subject to the Company’s controls described below.
The Company has various processes and controls in place to ensure that fair value measurements are reasonably estimated. With respect to broker and pricing service quotations, and in order to ensure these quotes represent a reasonable estimate of fair value, the Company’s quarterly procedures include a comparison of such quotations to quotations from different sources, outputs generated from its internal pricing models and transactions completed, as well as on its knowledge and experience of these markets. With respect to fair value estimates generated based on the Company’s internal pricing models, the Company’s management validates the inputs and outputs of the internal pricing models by comparing them to available independent third-party market parameters and models, where available, for reasonableness. The Company believes its valuation methods and the assumptions used are appropriate and consistent with other market participants.
Fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 are sensitive to changes in the assumptions or methodology used to determine fair value and such changes could result in a significant increase or decrease in the fair value. For the Company’s investments in real estate securities and loans categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the significant unobservable inputs include the discount rates, assumptions relating to prepayments, default rates and loss severities.
All of the inputs used have some degree of market observability, based on the Company’s knowledge of the market, relationships with market participants, and use of common market data sources. Collateral prepayment, default and loss severity projections are in the form of “curves” or “vectors” that vary for each monthly collateral cash flow projection. Methods used to develop these projections vary by asset class but conform to industry conventions. The Company uses assumptions that generate its best estimate of future cash flows of each respective security.
|Earnings Per Share
The Company’s dilutive securities are its outstanding stock options and RSUs.
|Valuation of Options
The valuation of the employee options has been determined using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The Black-Scholes option valuation model uses assumptions of expected volatility, expected dividend yield of the Company’s stock, expected term of the awards and the risk-free interest rate.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which temporary differences become deductible.