FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2017
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS||
FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Fair Value Summary Table
The following table summarizes the carrying values and estimated fair values of the Company’s financial instruments at September 30, 2017:
Fair Value Measurements
The fair value of financial instruments is categorized based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique and categorized into a three-level fair value hierarchy. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The Company follows this hierarchy for its financial instruments measured at fair value.
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical instruments.
Level 2 - Valuations based principally on observable market parameters, including
Level 3 - Valuations determined using unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity, and that are significant to the overall fair value measurement. Level 3 assets and liabilities include financial instruments whose value is determined using non-binding market quotations, pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques where significant inputs are unobservable, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant management judgment or estimation.
Fair value may be based upon broker quotations, counterparty quotations or pricing services quotations, which provide valuation estimates based upon reasonable market order indications or management’s good faith estimate, and are subject to significant variability based on market conditions, such as interest rates, credit spreads and market liquidity. A significant portion of the Company’s real estate securities and loans, and debt obligations are currently not traded in active markets and therefore have little or no price transparency. As a result, the Company has estimated the fair value of these illiquid instruments based on internal pricing models subject to the Company’s controls described below.
The Company has various processes and controls in place to ensure that fair value measurements are reasonably estimated. With respect to broker and pricing service quotations, and in order to ensure these quotes represent a reasonable estimate of fair value, The Company’s quarterly procedures include a comparison of such quotations to quotations from different sources, outputs generated from its internal pricing models and transactions completed, as well as on its knowledge and experience of these markets. With respect to fair value estimates generated based on the Company’s internal pricing models, the Company’s management validates the inputs and outputs of the internal pricing models by comparing them to available independent third-party market parameters and models, where available, for reasonableness. The Company believes its valuation methods and the assumptions used are appropriate and consistent with other market participants.
Fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 are sensitive to changes in the assumptions or methodology used to determine fair value and such changes could result in a significant increase or decrease in the fair value. For the Company’s investments in real estate securities and loans categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the significant unobservable inputs include the discount rates, assumptions relating to prepayments, default rates and loss severities.
Recurring Fair Value Measurements - Real Estate Securities and Derivatives
The following table summarizes financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at September 30, 2017:
Significant Unobservable Inputs
The following table provides quantitative information regarding the significant unobservable inputs used by the Company for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2017:
All of the inputs used have some degree of market observability, based on the Company’s knowledge of the market, relationships with market participants, and use of common market data sources. Collateral prepayment, default and loss severity projections are in the form of “curves” or “vectors” that vary for each monthly collateral cash flow projection. Methods used to develop these projections vary by asset class but conform to industry conventions. The Company uses assumptions that generate its best estimate of future cash flows of each respective security.
The discount rates the Company uses are derived from a range of observable pricing on securities backed by similar collateral and offered in a live market. As the markets in which the Company transacts have become less liquid, the Company has had to rely on fewer data points in this analysis.
Default rates are determined from the current “pipeline” of loans that are more than 90 days delinquent, in foreclosure, or are REO. These significantly delinquent loans determine the first 24 months of the default vector. Beyond month 24, the default vector transitions to a steady-state value that is generally equal to or greater than that given by the widely published investment bank model.
The prepayment speed vector specifies the percentage of the collateral balance that is expected to voluntarily pay off at each point in the future. The prepayment speed vector is based on projections from a widely published investment bank model which considers factors such as collateral FICO score, loan-to-value ratio, debt-to-income ratio, and vintage on a loan-level basis. This vector is scaled up or down to match recent collateral-specific prepayment experience, as obtained from remittance reports and market data services.
Loss severities are based on recent collateral-specific experience with additional consideration given to collateral characteristics. Collateral age is taken into consideration because severities tend to initially increase with collateral age before eventually stabilizing. The Company typically uses projected severities that are higher than the historic experience for collateral that is relatively new to account for this effect. Collateral characteristics such as loan size, lien position, and location (state) also affect loss severity. The Company considers whether a collateral pool has experienced a significant change in its composition with respect to these factors when assigning severity projections.
Real estate securities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using Level 3 inputs changed during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 as follows:
Non-Recurring Fair Value Measurements - Loans
Loans which the Company does not have the ability or intent to hold into the foreseeable future are classified as held-for-sale. Held-for-sale loans are carried at the lower of amortized cost or fair value and are therefore recorded at fair value on a non-recurring basis. These loans were written down to fair value at the time of the impairment, based on internal pricing models. All the loans were within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. For real estate related and other loans, the most significant inputs used in the valuations are the amount and timing of expected future cash flows, market yields and the estimated collateral value of such loan investments.
Liabilities for Which Fair Value is Only Disclosed
The following table summarizes the level of the fair value hierarchy, valuation techniques and inputs used for estimating each class of liabilities not measured at fair value in the statement of financial position but for which fair value is disclosed:
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef