SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation - The accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes of Newcastle have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial reporting and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted. In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of Newcastle's financial position, results of operations and cash flows have been included and are of a normal and recurring nature. The operating results presented for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the entire year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with Newcastle's consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2014 and notes thereto included in Newcastle’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 2, 2015. Capitalized terms used herein, and not otherwise defined, are defined in Newcastle’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period’s presentation.
As of September 30, 2015, Newcastle's significant accounting policies for these financial statements are summarized below and should be read in conjunction with the Summary of Significant Accounting Policies detailed in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Golf Revenues - Revenue from green fees, cart rentals, food and beverage sales, merchandise sales and other income (consisting primarily of range income, banquets, instruction, and club and other rental income) are generally recognized at the time of sale, when services are rendered and collection is reasonably assured.
Revenue from membership dues is recognized in the month earned. Membership dues received in advance are included in deferred revenues and recognized as revenue ratably over the appropriate period, which is generally twelve months or less. The monthly dues are generally structured to cover the club operating costs and membership services.
Private country club members generally pay an advance initiation fee deposit upon their acceptance as a member to the respective country club. Initiation fee deposits are refundable 30 years after the date of acceptance as a member. The difference between the initiation fee deposit paid by the member and the present value of the refund obligation is deferred and recognized into revenue in the consolidated statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the expected life of an active membership, which is estimated to be seven years.
The present value of the refund obligation is recorded as a membership deposit liability in the consolidated balance sheet and accretes over a 30-year nonrefundable term using the effective interest method. This accretion is recorded as interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
Derivatives and Hedging Activities - All derivatives are recognized as either assets or liabilities on the balance sheet and measured at fair value. Newcastle reports the fair value of derivative instruments gross of cash paid or received pursuant to credit support agreements and fair value is reflected on a net counterparty basis when Newcastle believes a legal right of offset exists under an enforceable netting agreement. Fair value adjustments affect either equity or net income depending on whether the derivative instrument qualifies as a hedge for accounting purposes and, if so, the nature of the hedging activity. For those derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as hedging instruments, Newcastle designates the hedging instrument, based upon the exposure being hedged, as either a cash flow hedge, a fair value hedge or a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation.
Derivative transactions are entered into by Newcastle solely for risk management purposes, except for total rate of return swaps. Such total rate of return swaps are essentially financings of certain reference assets which are treated as derivatives for accounting purposes. The decision of whether or not a given transaction/position (or portion thereof) is hedged is made on a case-by-case basis, based on the risks involved and other factors as determined by management, including restrictions imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) among others. In determining whether to hedge a risk, Newcastle may consider whether other assets, liabilities, firm commitments and anticipated transactions already offset or reduce the risk. All transactions undertaken as hedges are entered into with a view towards minimizing the potential for economic losses that could be incurred by Newcastle. Generally, all derivatives entered into are intended to qualify as hedges under GAAP, unless specifically stated otherwise. To this end, terms of hedges are matched closely to the terms of hedged items.
Description of the risks being hedged
Cash Flow Hedges
To qualify for cash flow hedge accounting, interest rate swaps and caps must meet certain criteria, including (1) the items to be hedged expose Newcastle to interest rate risk, (2) the interest rate swaps or caps are highly effective in reducing Newcastle’s exposure to interest rate risk, and (3) with respect to an anticipated transaction, such transaction is probable. Correlation and effectiveness are periodically assessed based upon a comparison of the relative changes in the fair values or cash flows of the interest rate swaps and caps and the items being hedged, or using regression analysis on an ongoing basis to assess retrospective and prospective hedge effectiveness.
For derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as a cash flow hedge (i.e., hedging the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows that is attributable to a particular risk), the effective portion of the gain or loss, and net payments received or made, on the derivative instrument are reported as a component of other comprehensive income and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument in excess of the cumulative change in the present value of future cash flows of the hedged item, if any, is recognized in current earnings during the period of change. The premiums paid for interest rate caps, treated as cash flow hedges, are amortized into interest expense based on the estimated value of such cap for each period covered by such cap.
With respect to interest rate swaps which have been designated as hedges of anticipated financings, periodic net payments are recognized currently as adjustments to interest expense; any gain or loss from fluctuations in the fair value of the interest rate swaps is recorded as a deferred hedge gain or loss in accumulated other comprehensive income and treated as a component of the anticipated transaction. In the event the anticipated refinancing failed to occur as expected, the deferred hedge credit or charge would be recognized immediately in earnings. Newcastle’s hedges of such financings were terminated upon the consummation of such financings.
Newcastle designated certain of its derivatives, and in some cases re-designated all or a portion thereof as hedges. As a result of these designations, in the cases where the originally hedged items were still owned by Newcastle, the unrealized gain or loss was recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income as a deferred hedge gain or loss and is being amortized over the life of the hedged item.
As of September 30, 2015, Newcastle no longer has derivative instruments that are designated and qualify as hedging instruments based on ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Newcastle terminated two interest rate swaps in connection with the liquidation of CDO VIII and the interest rate swap in CDO VI matured in March 2015.
With respect to interest rate swaps and caps that have not been designated as hedges, any net payments under, or fluctuations in the fair value of, such swaps and caps have been recognized currently in other income (loss). These derivatives may, to some extent, be economically effective as hedges. Under these agreements, we paid fixed monthly coupons at fixed rates of 4.85% of the notional amount to the counterparty and received floating rate LIBOR. Our interest rate swaps that were not designated as hedges matured in March 2015.
Newcastle has entered into certain transactions which financed the purchase of certain assets with the seller of these assets. The contemporaneous purchase of the asset and the associated financing are treated as a linked transaction and accordingly recorded on a net basis as a non-hedge derivative instrument, with changes in market value recorded on the statement of operations. In May 2014, the CDO VIII Class 1 notes were repaid in full and the repurchase agreement was terminated. Therefore, the associated linked transaction was effectively terminated.
Newcastle also transacts in the to be announced mortgage backed securities ("TBA") market. TBA contracts are forward contracts to purchase mortgage-backed securities that will be issued by a U.S. government sponsored enterprise in the future. Newcastle primarily engages in TBA transactions for purposes of managing interest rate risk and market risk associated with our investment strategies. For example, Newcastle takes short positions in TBAs to offset - to varying degrees - changes in the values of our Agency residential mortgage backed securities ("RMBS") investments for which we have exposure to interest rate volatility; therefore, these derivatives may, to some extent, be economically effective as hedges.
Newcastle typically does not take delivery of TBAs, but rather settles the associated receivable and payable with its trading counterparties on a net basis. As part of its TBA activities, Newcastle may "roll" its TBA positions, whereby we may sell (buy) securities for delivery (receipt) in an earlier month and simultaneously contract to repurchase (sell) similar securities at an agreed-upon price on a fixed date in a later month. Newcastle accounts for its TBA transactions as non-hedge instruments, with changes in market value recorded on the statement of operations. As of September 30, 2015, Newcastle held TBA contracts consisting of four short contracts totaling $1,100.9 million notional amount and three long contracts totaling $745.8 million notional amount of Agency RMBS.
Newcastle’s derivative financial instruments contain credit risk to the extent that its bank counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreements. Newcastle reduces such risk by limiting its counterparties to major financial institutions. In addition, the potential risk of loss with any one party resulting from this type of credit risk is monitored. Management does not expect any material losses as a result of default by other parties. Newcastle does not require collateral for the derivative financial instruments within its CDO financing structures.
Operating Leases and Other Operating Expenses - Other operating expenses for the Golf business consist primarily of equipment leases, utilities, repairs and maintenance, supplies, seed, soil and fertilizer, and marketing. Many of the golf properties and related facilities are leased under long-term operating leases. In addition to minimum payments, certain leases require payment of the excess of various percentages of gross revenue or net operating income over the minimum rental payments. The leases generally require the payment of taxes assessed against the leased property and the cost of insurance and maintenance. The majority of lease terms range from 10 years to 20 years, and typically, the leases contain renewal options. Certain leases include minimum scheduled increases in rental payments at various times during the term of the lease. These scheduled rent increases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, resulting in an accrual, which is included in accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities, for the amount by which the cumulative straight-line rent exceeds the contractual cash rent.
BALANCE SHEET MEASUREMENT
Investments in CDO Servicing Rights - In February 2011, Newcastle, through one of its subsidiaries, purchased the management rights with respect to certain C-BASS Investment Management LLC (“C-BASS”) CDOs for $2.2 million pursuant to a bankruptcy proceeding. Newcastle initially recorded the cost of acquiring the collateral management rights as a servicing asset and subsequently amortizes this asset in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing income. Servicing assets are assessed for impairment on a quarterly basis, with impairment recognized as a valuation allowance. Key economic assumptions used in measuring any potential impairment of the servicing assets include the prepayment speeds of the underlying loans, default rates, loss severities and discount rates. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, Newcastle recorded $0.1 million and $0.3 million, respectively, of servicing rights amortization and no servicing rights impairment. As of September 30, 2015, Newcastle’s servicing assets had a carrying value of $0.8 million, which is reported within receivables and other assets.
Investments in Other Real Estate, Net - Real estate and related improvements are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Costs that both materially add value and appreciably extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized. Fees and costs incurred in the successful negotiation of leases are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the respective leases. With respect to golf course improvements (included in buildings and improvements), only costs associated with original construction, significant replacements, or the addition of new trees, permanent landscaping, sand traps, fairways, tee boxes or greens are capitalized. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred.
Long-lived assets to be disposed of by sale, which meet certain criteria, are reclassified to assets and liabilities of discontinued operations and measured at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value less costs of sale. The results of operations for such disposal, assuming such disposal qualifies as a strategic shift that had (or will have) a major effect on the operations or financial results as defined, are retroactively reclassified to income (loss) from discontinued operations for all periods presented.
The Golf business leases certain golf carts and other equipment that are classified as capital leases. The value of capital leases is recorded as an asset on the balance sheet, along with a liability related to the associated payments. Depreciation of capital lease assets is calculated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful lives and the initial lease terms. The cost of equipment under capital leases is included in investments in other real estate in the consolidated balance sheets. Payments under the lease are treated as reductions of the liability, with a portion being recorded as interest expense under the effective interest method.
Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method based on the lesser of the lease term or the following estimated useful lives:
Intangibles - Intangible assets relating to the Golf business consist primarily of leasehold advantages (disadvantages), management contracts and membership base. A leasehold advantage (disadvantage) exists to Newcastle when it pays a contracted rent that is below (above) market rents at the date of the transaction. The value of a leasehold advantage (disadvantage) is calculated based on the differential between market and contracted rent, which is tax effected and discounted to present value based on an after-tax discount rate corresponding to each golf property. The management contract intangible represents Newcastle’s golf course management contracts for both leased and managed properties. The management contract intangible for leased and managed properties is valued utilizing a discounted cash flow methodology under the income approach and is amortized over the term of the underlying lease or management agreements, respectively. The membership base intangible represents Newcastle’s relationship with its private golf club members. The membership base intangible is valued using the multi-period excess earnings method under the income approach, and is amortized over the weighted average remaining useful life of the private memberships.
Amortization of leasehold intangible assets is included within operating expense - golf and amortization of all other intangible assets is included within depreciation and amortization on the consolidated statements of operations.
Other Investment - Newcastle owns 23% of equity interest in a commercial real estate project which is recorded as an equity method investment. As of September 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the carrying value of this investment was $20.3 million and $26.8 million, respectively. Newcastle evaluates its equity method investment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the investment might not be recoverable. The evaluation of recoverability is based on management’s assessment of the financial condition and near term prospects of the investee, the length of time and the extent to which the market value of the investment has been less than cost and the intent and ability of Newcastle to retain its investment.
Impairment of Real Estate and Finite-lived Intangible Assets - Newcastle periodically reviews the carrying amounts of its long-lived assets, including real estate and finite-lived intangible assets, to determine whether current events or circumstances indicate that such carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The assessment of recoverability is based on management’s estimates by comparing the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows generated by the underlying asset, or other appropriate grouping of assets, to its carrying value to determine whether an impairment existed at its lowest level of identifiable cash flows. If the carrying amount of the asset is greater than the expected undiscounted cash flows to be generated by such asset, an impairment is recognized to the extent the carrying value of such asset exceeds its fair value. Newcastle generally measures fair value by considering sale prices for similar assets or by discounting estimated future cash flows using an appropriate discount rate. Assets to be disposed of are carried at the lower of their financial statement carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") and the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09 Revenues from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The standard’s core principle is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In doing so, companies will need to use more judgment and make more estimates than under today’s guidance. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date which defers the effective date by one year. The standard will be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017; however, all entities are allowed to adopt the standard as early as the original effective date (annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016). Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified approach to adopt the guidance. We are currently reviewing the guidance to determine the impact to the consolidated financial statements.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-02, Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis. The standard amends the consolidation considerations when evaluating certain limited partnerships, variable interest entities and investment funds. The ASU is effective for Newcastle in the first quarter of 2016 and early adoption is permitted. The adoption of the new guidance will have no impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, Interest-Imputation of Interest (Topic 835): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. The standard requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. The new guidance is effective in the first quarter of 2016 and early adoption is permitted. Newcastle elected to early adopt this new guidance effective for the first quarter of 2015 to simplify presentation of debt issuance costs and has applied the changes retrospectively to all periods presented. Accordingly, "Receivables and other assets" excludes deferred financing costs and "Repurchase Agreements" is reported net of deferred financing costs of $0.4 million as of September 30, 2015 and "Credit facilities and obligations under capital leases" is reported net of deferred financing costs of $0.4 million as of December 31, 2014 in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The FASB has recently issued or discussed a number of proposed standards on such topics as financial statement presentation, leases, financial instruments and hedging. Some of the proposed changes are significant and could have a material impact on Newcastle’s reporting. Newcastle has not yet fully evaluated the potential impact of these proposals, but will make such an evaluation as the standards are finalized.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef